Following some discussions on Facebook over the last few days about ‘mbira and authenticity’, I went online seeking what others think about issues of authenticity in other types of music. I came across this article that I found rather interesting because it asks questions that are very relevant to mbira and have been asked before in mbira circles. I hope you find it interesting so that we can continue having conversations on mbira and authenticity. Happy reading!

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Published 2010 by Kirk Ward : Worship in the City

What is authentic music?

How do we determine what makes a song or a performance or worship experience authentic instead of commercial, fake, entertainment, showy, etc? This seems to be a very important question especially to the marketing-savvy PoMos out there who are looking to “emergent” styles of worship. We want to be involved in real worship experiences that are not contrived from an attempt to force a worshipy moment to occur. This issue was the driving motivation behind the “Contemporvant” video that made the rounds a few months ago. Are we just faking it every Sunday? What is the culture looking for in our definition of “authentic” in worship?

Who defines authenticity?

This is the first question that we need to ask ourselves. Is folk music authentic? Does unplugging make things more authentic? What if you are playing Contemporary Gospel music? Is is more authentic to unplug then? Does informal attire, a lack of worship order, or popular style music define authentic? Does ancient prayers, iconography, candles and incense create authenticity? My questions should be leading you to see that the problem lies in the fact that “authenticity” is culturally determined. It’s not as easy to talk about what’s authentic when you are bringing many different cultures into a room. In the end, it’s always going to feel “faked” when a white dude like me attempts to lead a traditional black gospel tune. I’m not the “real thing”. Authentic gets determined by the culture in which the expression is coming from.

What about commercialism?

So another problem that comes up is the power of the almighty dollar. So much music is created just like any other commercially distributed product, with the bottom line as the primary motivation. If I write a song that sounds like Chris Tomlin, I will sell a lot of records because people want to buy more of what they already like. So, what might have been created (maybe by Chris Tomlin) as an authentic expression of an artist goes out into the world and becomes cloned by the business into a thousand versions of “How Great Is Our God”. This effect happens in every market on the planet. There is no musical genre or tradition that is immune to the power of the dollar to create clones. For every “The Beatles” there’s “The Monkeys”. This effect is even seen in the genres that people run to in order to get away from commercialism: folk, country, bluegrass, classical, hymns, jazz, blues, jam bands, punk, indy, metal, thrash all have bands or artists that are sell-outs and poseurs. What do we do to escape it? Do we reject any form of art that has any kind of market drive or value? How does a Christian artist both make money as a craftsman and at the same time preserve artistic integrity? How do we as worshipers choose music to use in our liturgies without just becoming the equivalent of a Top 40 radio station for our particular cultural predispositions?

Where does skill enter in to worship?

Here’s the place where skill starts to get tossed into the mix. Music that is performed with skill is by it’s nature commercially valuable in the same way that a well built chair or car will have value in a market where chairs and cars are in demand. A well written song or a skilled performer will be a commercial commodity. We all hate to see bad musicians become successful because they look pretty, and yet when a skilled musician plays in church, that can sometimes come off as too “showy” or “commercial” because they are playing at a level equivalent to that which we hear coming from the mass media. We might all agree that skill is good in God’s eyes, but in the practical execution, there seems to be an implied expectation in a lot of churches that a display of skill takes away from the glory of God some how. Many musicians adopt an “indy” or “hipster” aesthetic in order to reject what they deem to be commercial. They play songs without skill (simplistic harmony, minimal instrumentation, limited vocal range, intentionally bland vocal style, casual style presentation). I find it comical that there appears to be a hipster backlash that is sweeping the web and I supposed the culture in general. People are starting to see this as just another culture with the same rules of assimilation, popularity, and commercialization that go in to the formation of a tribal identity. But that’s a tangent…skill as it relates to authenticity is determined by the culture. There’s ebb and flow within the culture as well as generational and class differences are taken into account.

Authentic vs. Accessible

In “Gather Into One”, C. Michael Hawn presents the problems of authenticity in relation to cross-cultural ministry. If I want an authentic experience of my worship music, I need to go to my tribal church. When I attend the church of a different tribe and they attempt my music, they will fail. Have you ever heard a traditional organist play a modern worship song? It always sounds lame (meaning lacking authenticity)and that’s not even a ethnic difference. So, when we blend tribes into one congregation, how do we create an authentic experience? The sending culture (let’s say Black, Pentecostal) has to adapt a song in order to make it accessible to the receiving culture (White Presbyterian). So what do we change and what do we keep? In the end, each culture has to sacrifice the right to authentic worship music in order to have something better: authentic relationships.

I rambled a lot and didn’t answer most of my questions. Can you help me to process this? Did this create any questions in your mind?

What is authentic music? | Worship In The City.

I hope you found the questions raised in the article applicable to the mbira scene. Of course we need to ask more questions that are very specific to the mbira scene and continue to discuss, enrich and grow the mbira community.  Tonight I’m off to see Femi Kuti perform, yey! Later

4 Replies to “What is authentic music?”

    1. Thanks Kirk for your article that asks questions that are very similar to questions that are being asked in mbira circles about authenticity. Mbira’s popularity has been growing a lot over the past two decades with developments happening both abroad and in Zimbabwe. As new styles, ways of amplification, ways of expression etc emerge, questions of authenticity also crop up. Mbira has been evolving for centuries and it is possible that what is considered authentic now might have been controversial at some point. We’ll just keep asking and talking about it 😊

  1. Taku this is a very interesting topic. In a way recording mbira music became one way of preserving the cultural legacy of mbira. The importance of preserving mbira music through recording was echoed by Jones when she says “a number of players of the mbira huru (also called mbira dzavadzimu) who were committed to the preservation and popularization of the instrument, became well known through recording and radio broadcast” (2000:28). The above trend marked the beginning of commercialization of the cultural legacy of mbira in Zimbabwe through media. Mbira music slowly secured a space in the music industry through air play and live performance in matandaro ceremonies.

  2. Sorry I attached a wrong comment in my previous mail.
    The issue of the authenticity of mbira is quite topical. I think the authenticity lies in the blood of the legitimate owner of the instrument and this embrace perceptions about and ontology of mbira as presented by mbira the instrument, mbira the sound, mbira the behaviour and indeed mbira the spirit . The current mbira is partially authentic in that it has succumbed to the forces of modernity. It can project that its authenticity is slowly declining as more and more thrust is chunneled torwards commercialization of the instrument locally and internationally.

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